These are the savings realized by entities who have participated in PPI’s various programs and have implemented projects as a result. Most of the data comes from our Pollution Prevention Intern Program. The remaining data comes from technical assistance offered through our Pollution Prevention, Source Reduction and SBEAP programs, as well as from other projects.
Where do these numbers come from?
Results are based on numbers obtained from the company, usually during technical assistance or during follow-up activities with the company, once they have had a chance to implement the project. PPI may assist in data collection or analysis. Multiple sources and methods are used to calculate results, but when possible, sources such as bills, invoices and purchasing records are preferred. PPI uses EPA calculators such as the P2 Greenhouse Gas Calculator and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM), which estimates reductions in greenhouse gas emissions due to different methods of waste diversion.
What is included in these numbers?
The data presented is specific to the project type and the P2 or source reduction actions implemented. For example, solid waste projects can cover a variety of materials used in industry, including cardboard, wood, or even food waste from various commercial, institutional or industrial facilities. Not all projects include solid waste projects. Not all solid waste projects include recycling. All data is based on projects and operations at the facility. For example, water savings data is based on actual changes in facility operations that result in less water used. However if the facility’s material supplier reduces the amount of water used in their process, this is not a creditable water use reduction for the main facility. Similarly, if a company substitutes a different product that is produced using less water, though this is environmentally beneficial, it would not be counted in water savings for the facility purchasing the product.
This includes source reduction efforts and waste diversion, where allowed by the project. Source reduction projects may include the following:
This includes water use reductions by the facility. Common projects include the following:
Most projects implemented reduce costs to the facility. Most cost savings is calculated as simple cost savings from reductions in energy, water, materials, hazardous waste generated or air pollutants emitted. Other cost savings may be realized through reduction in labor, wastewater treatment and disposal, maintenance, training or compliance burden, but these are generally difficult to quantify and are not usually included in calculations. Cost savings are calculated based on a year of operation following implementation of the project. Ongoing expenses introduced as a result of implementing the project are considered in calculating cost savings, but capital expenditures are not.
This includes reduction in hazardous materials used or produced. Common projects include the following:
This includes mostly HAPs and VOCs. Criteria pollutants can be included as well. Greenhouse gases are counted separately and are not included in air emissions. Common projects include the following:
Greenhouse gases (GHGs)
Most GHG reduction projects are energy conservation projects, although reduction in other uses or generation of GHGs are included. Water conservation projects often have an associated GHG reduction based on the energy required to transport the water. Common projects include the following: